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哈姆雷特梁实秋译本之蹩脚

热度 1已有 1481 次阅读2022-9-30 07:03 |个人分类:风雅附|系统分类:其他文学

莎士比亚剧本《哈姆雷特》的译本,中学时读过一个版本,当时也没有注意是谁翻译的。刚在网上查看,才知道那是朱生豪版,在抗日战争的艰苦年代翻译的。而且知道还有个梁实秋本,是后来的。按理说,后面的应该比前面的有所改进吧。有人称,梁实秋本更忠实于原文,于是我对比了一下,哈姆雷特那段著名的自白。下面是对比

英文

朱生豪

梁实秋

To be, or not to be, that is the question

生存还是毁灭,这是一个值得考虑的问题

死后还是存在,还是不存在、这是问

Whether 'tis nobler in the mind to suffer

The slings and arrows of outrageous fortune,
Or to take Arms against a Sea of troubles,
And by opposing end them

默然忍受命运的暴虐的毒箭,或是挺身反抗人世的无涯的苦难,通过斗争把它们扫清,这两种行为,哪一种更高贵?

究竟要忍受这强暴的命运的矢石,还是要拔剑和这滔天的恨事拼命相斗,才是英雄气概呢?

 

to die, to sleep
No more; and by a sleep, to say we end
The heart-ache, and the thousand natural shocks
That Flesh is heir to? 'Tis a consummation
Devoutly to be wished. 

死了;睡着了;什么都完了;要是在这一种睡眠之中,我们心头的创痛,以及其他无数血肉之躯所不能避免的打击,都可以从此消失,那正是我们求之不得的结局。

死一一长眠, --如此而已,阖眼一睡,若是就能就完结心头的苦痛和肉体承受的万千惊扰---那真是我们要去虔求的愿望。

 

To die, to sleep,
To sleep, perchance to Dream; aye, there's the rub,
For in that sleep of death, what dreams may come,
When we have shuffled off this mortal coil,
Must give us pause. 

死了;睡着了;睡着了也许还会做梦;嗯,阻碍就在这儿:因为当我们摆脱了这一具朽腐的皮囊以后,在那死的睡眠里,究竟将要做些什么梦,那不能不使我们踌躇顾虑。

死;长眠---长眠么!也许做梦哩!哎,阻碍就在此了;我们捐弃尘世之后,在死睡当中会做些什么梦,这却不可不加思索

 

There's the respect
That makes Calamity of so long life:

人们甘心久困于患难之中,也就是为了这个缘故

苦痛的生活所以能有这样长的寿命,也就是这样的动机所

For who would bear the Whips and Scorns of time,
The Oppressor's wrong, the proud man's Contumely, [F: poore]
The pangs of dispised Love, the Law’s delay, [F: dispriz’d]
The insolence of Office, and the spurns
That patient merit of th'unworthy takes,
When he himself might his Quietus make
With a bare Bodkin? 

谁愿意忍受人世的鞭挞和讥嘲、压迫者的凌辱、傲慢者的冷眼、被轻蔑的爱情的惨痛、法律的迁延、官吏的横暴和费尽辛勤所换来的小人的鄙视,要是他只要用一柄小小的刀子,就可以清算他自己的一生?

否则在短刀一挥就可完结性命的时候,谁还甘心忍受这时代的鞭挞讥嘲,高压者的横暴,骄傲者的菲薄,失恋的悲哀,法律的延宕,官吏的骄纵,以及一切凡夫俗子所能加给善人的欺凌?

 

Who would Fardels bear, [F: these Fardels]
To grunt and sweat under a weary life,
But that the dread of something after death,
The undiscovered country, from whose bourn
No traveller returns, puzzles the will,
And makes us rather bear those ills we have,
Than fly to others that we know not of?

谁愿意负着这样的重担,在烦劳的生命的压迫下呻吟流汗,倘不是因为惧怕不可知的死后,惧怕那从来不曾有一个旅人回来过的神秘之国,是它迷惑了我们的意志,使我们宁愿忍受目前的磨折,不敢向我们所不知道的痛苦飞去?

谁愿意背着负担,在厌倦的生活之下呻吟喘汗,若不是因为对死后的恐惧 --- 死乃是旅客一去不返的未经发现的异乡---令人心志迷惑,使得我宁可忍受现有的苦痛,而不敢轻易尝试那不可知的苦痛

 

Thus conscience does make cowards of us all,
And thus the native hue of Resolution
Is sicklied o'er, with the pale cast of Thought,
And enterprises of great pitch and moment, [F: pith]
With this regard their Currents turn awry, [F: away]
And lose the name of Action. 

这样,重重的顾虑使我们全变成了懦夫,决心的赤热的光彩,被审慎的思维盖上了一层灰色,伟大的事业在这一种考虑之下,也会逆流而退,失去了行动的意义。

所以自觉的意识使得我们都变成了懦夫,所以敢作敢为的血性被思前想后的顾虑害得变成了灰色,惊天动地的的大事业也往往因此而中途旁逸,壮志全消了。

 






























































对比英文,朱生豪版不但相当准确,而且文字流畅,逻辑思路清晰。因此,朱生豪版可以作为原文相当好的参考。对比之下,而梁实秋版不只是不准确、漏掉关键内容、添加原文没有的内容、颠倒文字顺序,甚至 GP不通。第一句就翻译错误。To be, or not to be 。这是一个哲学问题,be 是 exist 的意思。哈姆雷特是在问,自己是活下去还是死了算了。根本不是在问什么死后还存不存在。



英文是:

To be, or not to be, that is the question:
Whether 'tis nobler in the mind to suffer
The slings and arrows of outrageous fortune,
Or to take Arms against a Sea of troubles,
And by opposing end them: to die, to sleep
No more; and by a sleep, to say we end
The heart-ache, and the thousand natural shocks
That Flesh is heir to? 'Tis a consummation
Devoutly to be wished. To die, to sleep,
To sleep, perchance to Dream; aye, there's the rub,
For in that sleep of death, what dreams may come,
When we have shuffled off this mortal coil,
Must give us pause. There's the respect
That makes Calamity of so long life:
For who would bear the Whips and Scorns of time,
The Oppressor's wrong, the proud man's Contumely, [F: poore]
The pangs of dispised Love, the Law’s delay, [F: dispriz’d]
The insolence of Office, and the spurns
That patient merit of th'unworthy takes,
When he himself might his Quietus make
With a bare Bodkin? Who would Fardels bear, [F: these Fardels]
To grunt and sweat under a weary life,
But that the dread of something after death,
The undiscovered country, from whose bourn
No traveller returns, puzzles the will,
And makes us rather bear those ills we have,
Than fly to others that we know not of?
Thus conscience does make cowards of us all,
And thus the native hue of Resolution
Is sicklied o'er, with the pale cast of Thought,
And enterprises of great pitch and moment, [F: pith]
With this regard their Currents turn awry, [F: away]
And lose the name of Action. 

朱生豪版:

生存还是毁灭,这是一个值得考虑的问题;
默然忍受命运的暴虐的毒箭,或是挺身反抗人世的无涯的苦难,通过斗争把它们扫清,
这两种行为,哪一种更高贵?
死了;睡着了;什么都完了;
要是在这一种睡眠之中,我们心头的创痛,以及其他无数血肉之躯所不能避免的打击,都可以从此消失,那正是我们求之不得的结局。
死了;睡着了;睡着了也许还会做梦;
嗯,阻碍就在这儿:因为当我们摆脱了这一具朽腐的皮囊以后,在那死的睡眠里,究竟将要做些什么梦,那不能不使我们踌躇顾虑。人们甘心久困于患难之中,也就是为了这个缘故;谁愿意忍受人世的鞭挞和讥嘲、压迫者的凌辱、傲慢者的冷眼、被轻蔑的爱情的惨痛、法律的迁延、官吏的横暴和费尽辛勤所换来的小人的鄙视,要是他只要用一柄小小的刀子,就可以清算他自己的一生?谁愿意负着这样的重担,在烦劳的生命的压迫下呻吟流汗,倘不是因为惧怕不可知的死后,惧怕那从来不曾有一个旅人回来过的神秘之国,是它迷惑了我们的意志,使我们宁愿忍受目前的磨折,不敢向我们所不知道的痛苦飞去?这样,重重的顾虑使我们全变成了懦夫,决心的赤热的光彩,被审慎的思维盖上了一层灰色,伟大的事业在这一种考虑之下,也会逆流而退,失去了行动的意义。

梁实秋版:
死后还是存在,还是不存在、这是问题; 究竟要忍受
这强暴的命运的矢石,还是要拔剑和这滔天的恨事拼命相斗,
才是英雄气概呢?死一一长眠, --如此而已,阖眼
一睡,若是就能就完结心头的苦痛和肉体承受的万千惊扰---
那真是我们要去虔求的愿望。死;长眠---长眠么!也许做梦哩!
哎,阻碍就在此了;我们捐弃尘世之后,在死睡当中会做些什么梦,这却不可不加思索;
苦痛的生活所以能有这样长的寿命,也就是这样的动机所致;否则在短刀一挥
就可完结性命的时候,谁还甘心忍受这时代的鞭挞讥嘲,高压者的横暴,骄傲者的菲薄,失恋的悲哀,
法律的延宕,官吏的骄纵,以及一切凡夫俗子所能加给善人的欺凌?谁愿意背着负担,在厌倦的生活之下呻吟喘汗,
若不是因为对死后的恐惧 --- 死乃是旅客一去不返的未经发现的异乡---令人心志迷惑,使得我宁可忍受现有的
苦痛,而不敢轻易尝试那不可知的苦痛;所以“自觉的意识”使得我们都变成了懦夫,所以敢作敢为的血性被
思前想后的顾虑害得变成了灰色,惊天动地的的大事业也往往因此而中途旁逸,壮志全消了。




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发表评论 评论 (2 个评论)

回复 Wavelet 2022-10-3 13:08
梁实秋's translation of Shakespearean stuff seems like a joke. Besides Hamlet, his translation of sonnet masterpieces is almost like that he had never been trained to understand how Shakespeare conducted his worked - leaving alone the understanding of the rhyme scheme, his choice of vocabularies is pretty much one of a kind. E.g. '一想起你的爱使我那么富有' or '想起了你的爱,那真是财富无限' for 'For thy sweet love remembered such wealth brings'.
回复 岳东晓 2022-10-4 04:51
Wavelet: 梁实秋's translation of Shakespearean stuff seems like a joke. Besides Hamlet, his translation of sonnet masterpieces is almost like that he had never ...
徒有虚名啊。他还是留美的教授。一个有趣的检验方法,把中文用Google翻译反翻成英语,发现朱生豪的很地道,梁实秋的则不通。

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