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The Little Known History of Downtown Manhattan

已有 238 次阅读2024-3-26 09:23 |个人分类:American Art (History)|系统分类:转帖-知识



14 ST 以下

纽约市的城市核心始于1624年的曼哈顿岛南端,是该岛的最南端,是纽约的主岛和商业和政府中心。

曼哈顿市中心最常见的词是北边的第 14 街、西边的哈德逊河、东边和南边的纽约港(也称为上纽约湾)。 曼哈顿下城是最常见的描述。 
特别是,北部边界通常被确定为第 14 街以南一英里半和该岛南端以北一英里,从布鲁克林大桥入口以东的钱伯斯街附近和一条道路开始。 当提到曼哈顿下城商业区及周边地区时,通常用大道来表示。

曼哈顿下城的商业区是钱伯斯街下的城市中心。 这包括金融区和世界贸易中心遗址(通常称为华尔街)。 岛的南端是炮台公园 (Battery Park); 市政厅就在北面。 拟建的炮台公园城和历史悠久的南街海港区位于钱伯斯街以南。 西侧是翠贝卡 (TriBeCa) 街区,巨大的曼哈顿市政大楼坐落于此。 纽约最古老的唐人街地区位于钱伯斯桥和布鲁克林大桥以北、运河街以南。 该地区还有几座法院大楼和其他政府办公室。 运河街位于下东区附近。 SoHo、Meatpacking District、West Village、Greenwich Village、Little Italy、Nolita 和 East Village 等社区位于运河街以北和 14 街以南。 下切尔西区、联合广场和熨斗区位于第 14 街和第 23 街与格拉梅西之间,大型住宅开发项目史岱文森村 (Stuyvesant Village) 位于该区域的东侧。

历史
Lenapes 居住的地区最终包括现代纽约市。 这些在文化和语言上平等的美洲原住民社区讲的是阿尔冈昆语,现在称为乌纳米语。 
1626 年,荷兰毛皮贸易站开始在曼哈顿下城和新阿姆斯特丹(荷兰语:Nieuw-Amsterdam)建立,作为欧洲人的定居点。 新荷兰的巴特里 (Battery) 是第一个堡垒。

荷兰西印度群岛公司后来招募非洲奴隶充当工人,帮助修建隔离墙以抵御英国人和原住民的袭击。 1626 年,阿姆斯特丹堡的建设很可能开始[7]。 威廉·维赫斯特和彼得·米努伊特是早期导演之一。 威廉·基夫特 (Willem Kieft) 于 1638 年成为导演,但五年后就参与了针对美国人的基夫特战争。 1643 年 2 月,在哈德逊河对岸(今泽西城)发生的帕沃尼亚大屠杀中,80 名原住民被杀害。 阿尔冈昆部落起义后联手,险些击败荷兰。

彼得·斯图文森 (Peter Stuyvesant) 于 1647 年 5 月 27 日抵达后被任命为总经理。该殖民地于 1652 年获得自治权,
并于 1653 年 2 月 2 日新阿姆斯特丹正式成为一座城市。 同年,新阿姆斯特丹(Burgemeester)的第一任市长 Arent van Hattem 和 Martin Cregier 当选。

The nucleus of the city of New York City, which began in the south tip of Manhattan Island in 1624 is the most southerly of the island, the main island and business and government hub of New York.

The most common word in Downtown Manhattan is 14th St. on the north and Hudson Rivers to the west, the East and New York Harbour to the south (also known as Upper New York Bay). Lower Manhattan is the most frequent description. In particular, the northern boundary is generally identified as a mile and a half south of 14th Street and a mile north of the southern tip of the island, from nearby Chambers Street east of Brooklyn Bridge entrances and a road. When referring to the Lower Manhattan Business District and surrounding areas, it is typically designated by thoroughfares.

The business district of Lower Manhattan is the center of the city under Chambers Street. This includes the Financial District and the World Trade Center site (often referred to as Wall Street). At the southern tip of the island is Battery Park; the City Hall is just to the north. The proposed Battery Park City and the historic South Street Seaport district are just to the south of Chambers Street. On the west side is TriBeCa neighborhood, where the massive Manhattan Municipal Building is located. The most ancient Chinatown area in New York is located north of Chambers and Brooklyn Bridge and south of Canal Street. Within this area there are also several court buildings and other government offices. Canal Street is located in the Lower East Side neighborhood. The neighborhoods of SoHo, the Meatpacking District, the West Village, Greenwich Village, Little Italy, Nolita and the East Village are located to the north of Canal Street and to the south of 14th Street. The lower Chelsea, Union Square and Flatiron District are situated between 14th and 23rd streets and Gramercy, with the large residential development known as Stuyvesant Village, on the eastern side of this area.

 

History

The Lenape people were living in the area that eventually would include modern New York City. Such communities of Native Americans who are culturally and linguistically equal spoke the Algonquian language now known as Unami. The establishment of the Dutch fur trading post at Lower Manhattan, then New Amsterdam (Dutch: Nieuw-Amsterdam), started in the year 1626 as a European settlement. In The Battery, New Netherlands was built as the first fort.

The Dutch West Indies Company later recruited African slave people to act as workmen and helped build the wall to protect against British and Native attacks. In 1626, the construction of Fort Amsterdam was most likely started[7]. Willem Verhulst and Peter Minuit were among the early directors. Willem Kieft became the director in 1638, but was engaged in the Kieft War against the Americans five years later. In February 1643, 80 native people were killed in the Pavonia massacre in present-day Jersey City across the Hudson River. The Algonquian tribes joined hands after the uprising and nearly defeated the Netherlands.

Peter Stuyvesant was introduced as General Manager upon his arrival on 27 May 1647. The colony was granted autonomy in 1652, and on February 2, 1653 New Amsterdam was formally incorporated as a city. During that year, the first mayors, Arent van Hattem and Martin Cregier of New Amsterdam (Burgemeester) were chosen.